Learning Punjabi Bindi – Tippi Vowels (Words)


Learning Punjabi Bindi – Tippi Vowels (Words)

Bindi and Tippi both are used to produce a nasalized sound in Punjabi.

a) ਬਿੰਦੀ( bindi)

Bindi serves to add a nasal sound to a particular vowel. Bindi is used with kannā, lāvā, dulāvā, bihārī, hōṛā and kanauṛā and the independent forms of vowels where ‘a’ is the bearer. Its sound is the same as ‘n’ in band, grand, slang, grant. For example,

kāaṇ (crow) = ਕਾਂ

gāaṇ (cow) = ਗਾਂ

b) ਟਿੱਪੀ (ṭippī)

It serves to add a nasal sound to a particular vowel. Tippee is used with muktā, sihārī, auṅkaṛ, dulaiṅkar only. It is not used upon ‘a’ (instead bindī is used with this letter) and last letter of a word. Its sound is same as ‘n’ in punch, lunch. For example;

amb (mango) = ਅੰਬ

pañchī (bird) = ਪੰਛੀ

jhaṇḍā (flag) = ਝੰਡਾ

Diacritics are the signs that are added to vowels and consonants to add phonetic value to them. Punjabi has three diacritics namely bindi (ਆਂ), tippi (ਅੰ) and udhak (ਅੱ) used with vowels. These diacritics are lexically significant as their use changes the meaning of the words. Therefore learning correct usage of these diacritics is important.

ਆਂ – Bindi

bindi Bindi is the dot above ਆ and

ਅੰ – tippi 

Tippi is the inverted semi-circular shape above ਅ. Bindi and tippi are used with vowels to nasalize the vowel sounds or to reinforce the following nasal sound and therefore come along with one of the matras. Both serve the same purpose but bindi is used with kanna, bihari, lanv, dulavan, horha and kanaorha whereas tippi is used exclusively with mukta, sihari, aaunkarh and dulaenkarh. See the following examples.

ਆ + ਉਂ + ਸ = ਆਉਂਸ = ounce

ਹੈਂ + ਸ = ਹੈਂਸ = hence

ਸੈਂ + ਸ = ਸੈਂਸ = sense

ਸਾ + ਇੰ + ਸ = ਸਾਇੰਸ = science

ਸਿੰ + ਸ = ਸਿੰਸ = since

ਐ + ਸੰ + ਸ = ਐਸੰਸ = essence

ਅੱ – udhak 

Udhak is used to reinforce the sound of the consonant that follows. It is interesting to note that udhak comes with the letter preceding the letter to be reinforced

.ਸੈੱ + ਸ = ਸੈੱਸ = cess

ਅ +ਸੈੱ + ਸ = ਅਸੈੱਸ = assess

ਸੈਂ + ਸੱ + ਸ = ਸੈਂਸੱਸ = census

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